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J. L. HUDSON, SEEDSMAN, BOX 337, LA HONDA, CALIFORNIA 94020-0337 USA
2014 SEEDLIST - Ca

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Match term(s) in J.L. Hudson Search Index:

CAESALPINIA (kay-sal-PE-nee-a or see-sal-PE-nee-a)
LEGUMINOSAE. Showy tropical and sub-tropical trees, shrubs and climbers grown for their spectacular flowers and feathery foliage. They are favorites in warm regions and as greenhouse subjects in the North. Easily grown from seed which is best soaked 12 - 24 hours in hot water, and those that do not swell lightly filed. Sow in sandy soil, keep warm, and pot off when the first true leaf shows. Germinates in 2 weeks to 4 months or more. Ordinary well-drained soil is best, and not too rich. They grow rapidly, and in cold climates will often flower in fairly small pots; the dwarf species are best for this. Warm, sunny, dry places are best. Some can survive down to 10 - 20°F, and are hardy to Washington D.C. The seed of some can float for years in seawater, being carried thousands of miles, to even arctic beaches.
—Caesalpinia cacalaco. (5) CAES-6. Packet: $3.00
Click for photos » Caesalpinia cacalaco.jpg (68409 bytes) Caesalpinia cacalaco stem.jpg (35684 bytes)
Treated with Sevin, and then washed.
'CASCALOTE', 'HUISACHE BOLA'. Large yellow or red flowers in long racemes. Grey-barked tree or shrub with pinnate leaves and 4 - 6" reddish pods. México. The pods contain considerable tannin and are used for dyeing. The seeds are eaten, the wood gives good charcoal, and the bark is used as a toothache remedy. Nick seed, germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.

CAJANUS (ka-JAN-us)
LEGMINOSAE. Two tropical species.
—Cajanus cajan. (30) CAJA-2. Packet: $2.00
Oz: $4.00, 1/4 lb: $6.00, lb: $8.00
'PIGEON PEA'. Yellow flowers followed by edible pods and seeds. Short-lived perennial to 5 feet, thriving in sun and moist to dry poor soil. Africa. Zone 9 or 10. Widely grown in the tropics for the nutritious seed, young pods, and young leaves. Produces abundant food, forage, and builds soil. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks. Some lots need nicking.

CALAMINTHA (ka-la-MIN-tha)
LABIATAE. Eurasian perennials grown for their tubular flowers or as flavoring and tea.
—Calamintha grandiflora. (50) CALA-10. Packet: $2.50
'ELFIN PURPLE CALAMINT'. Purple-rose 1 1/2" tubular flowers from May to July. Hardy aromatic perennial to 8", forming a nice mound of foliage. S. Europe. Zone 5. Good in part shade under trees.
—Calamintha nepeta. (100) CALA-17. Packet: $2.50
Gram: $7.50
'CALAMINT'. Lilac flowers in whorls in July and August. Hardy perennial to 1 foot tall, with downy leaves. Creeping rootstocks. Europe. Zone 5. The whole plant has a sweet aromatic scent, and was made into a pleasant cordial tea. Was used medicinally and the ancients believed it had the power to drive away serpents. Germinates in 1 - 5 weeks warm.

CALANDRINIA (ka-lan-DREE-nee-a)
PORTULACACEAE. Attractive, often trailing, somewhat succulent plants grown for their profusion of brilliant 3 - 7 petaled flowers. Easily grown from seed. Germinates in about 5 - 15 days. Best in sunny, dry, well-drained soil, and blooms best in hot sun. Blooms in about 15 weeks from seed.
—Calandrinia umbellata. (500) CALD-84. Packet: $2.50
Large, glowing, crimson-violet cup-shaped flowers in clusters from June to November. Mat-forming tender perennial forming tufts of grey-green narrow leaves to 3" tall, and flower stems to 6" tall. Peru and Chile. Zone 7. "Full exposure to sun, and light sandy soil, are needed to bring out the rare beauty of these plants."—L. H. Bailey. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.

CALENDULA (ka-LEN-du-la)
COMPOSITAE. Showy hardy annuals and perennials with large yellow and orange daisies. Easily grown, thriving in the poorest soils and harsh conditions. Sow where they are to stand in early spring, or in July to September for winter flowering pot plants. Cool weather plants which should be sown in fall in California and the South. Self sows and good for naturalizing. Long-lasting cut flowers. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks, best in the dark, so cover 1/4" deep. Keep out of burning summer sun. Nearly everblooming in mild climates. Seed viable 8 - 10 years.
Calendula officinalis Varieties:
'POT MARIGOLD'. Hardy annual to 1 - 2 feet. Cultivated since before 1573 for the showy flowers which are used in broths, soups, conserves and for coloring butter. Also had many medicinal uses, and was mentioned in herbals as early as Albertus Magnus' 13th century work. The petals were said to 'comfort the heart and spirits'. "No broths are well made without dried marigold."—Stevens, 1699. The fresh petals are colorful in salads. The single flowered varieties are closest to the wild ancestor, and the doubles produce an abundance of petals for the kitchen. Should be in every cook's garden.
—Calendula officinalis 'Black-Centered Golden Princess'. (100) CALN-7GP. Packet: $2.50
Long-stemmed quilled flowers. Specially selected for commercial cut-flower production. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Calendula officinalis 'Black-Centered Orange Princess'. (100) CALN-7BOP. Packet: $2.50
Long-stemmed quilled flowers. Specially selected for commercial cut-flower production. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Calendula officinalis 'Pacific Beauty Mix'. (100) CALN-7PX. Packet: $1.50
Oz: $6.00, 1/4 lb: $10.00
Excellent cut-flower strain, with uniform long straight stems to 2 feet. Shades of apricot, creamy yellow, golden yellow, lemon yellow with dark eye, and deep orange with eye. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Calendula officinalis 'Pot Marigold'. (100) CALN-7W. Packet: $2.50
10 grams: $7.50
'POT MARIGOLD', 'SOLIS SPONSA'. The wild form from Europe. Germinates in 1 - 5 weeks, sometimes part dormant, so 4 weeks prechill helps.
—Calendula officinalis 'Resina'. (100) CALN-7R. Packet: $2.50 OTC ORGANIC SEED
Oz: $7.50
Yellow and orange flowers. An early, potent, high yielding strain developed for the medicinal market.
—Calendula officinalis 'Triangle Flashback'. (25) CALN-7TF. Packet: $2.50 OTC ORGANIC SEED
1/2 Oz: $12.00
Striking fully double flowers with maroon petal-backs and faces in pastel pink shading to yellow in the center. Also called 'Zeolights'. Organically grown.

"Mathematics has no existence on its own. It is merely an arbitrary code devised to describe physical observations or philosophical concepts."
—Asimov.

CALLIANDRA (ka-lee-AN-dra)
LEGUMINOSAE. Showy tropical shrubs and trees grown for their striking flowers and feathery foliage. The name means 'beautiful stamen', aptly describing the long, plume-like stamens. Easily grown in the greenhouse and warm regions. Soak seed overnight, nick unswollen ones, germinates in 2 - 4 weeks.
—Calliandra eriophylla. (10) CALLI-32. Packet: $2.50
Seed has been treated with Sevin, then washed.
'FAIRY DUSTER'. Showy red-purple puff-like 3/4" flowers, followed by 2" pods. Small shrub to 1 - 3 feet tall and 5 feet wide, with feathery pinnate foliage. California to Texas and México. The northernmost Calliandra, standing harsh desert conditions and much frost. Probably hardy to minus 10 degrees F.

CALLICARPA (kal-li-KAR-pa)
VERBENACEAE. Nice shrubs and trees with clustered small flowers followed by bright fruits. Mostly tropical, but some hardy to Zone 5, where they renew from the roots. Tender kinds are good in the greenhouse.
—Callicarpa americana. (100) CALI-4. Packet: $2.50
Click for photo » Callicarpa americana berries.jpg (53692 bytes)
'FRENCH MULBERRY', 'BEAUTY BERRY'. Bluish white four-petaled flowers in dense clusters, with prominent stamens, May to July, followed by violet-blue berries. Attractive shrub to 6 feet, with 6" leaves. Virginia to Texas. Zone 6. Good ornamental for the South. Moist soil. Good deer browse. Use GA-3 to germinate in 1 - 8 months.

CALLIRHOE (ka-LEE-ro-ay)
MALVACEAE. Hardy N. American annuals and perennials grown for their profusion of showy flowers and attractive foliage. Easily grown in sunny areas and thriving in poor dry soils, giving a long period of summer bloom. Sow in early spring to germinate in about 3 weeks. They "...are of easiest culture, and deserving of much greater popularity."—Taylor.
—Callirhoe alcaeoides. (25) CAL-4. Packet: $3.00

'PINK POPPY-MALLOW'. Pink, inch-wide poppy-like flowers in spring. Hardy perennial to 8 - 20", with deeply lobed leaves. Central U.S. Good in dry areas. Zone 4. Germination irregular, starts in 1 - 2 weeks.

"Information is not knowledge. Knowledge is not wisdom. Wisdom is not truth. Truth is not beauty. Beauty is not love. Love is not music. Music is the best."—
Frank Zappa.

CALONYCTION (kal-o-NIK-tee-on)
CONVOLVULACEAE. Large twining half hardy perennials grown as annuals for their large and showy, fragrant, trumpet-shaped, night-blooming flowers. They are beautiful free-flowering vines, their night-scented blooms make them excellent for covering trellis work by summer porches and bedroom windows. Nick seed or soak overnight in warm water till swollen. Germinates in about 2 weeks. Sow early and plant out in May. Easy.
—Calonyction aculeatum. (=Ipomoea alba) (10) CALON-1. Packet: $2.00
Oz: $6.00, lb: $36.00
Click for photo » Calonyction aculeatum.jpg (35134 bytes)
'GIANT MOONFLOWER'. Large, white, sweetly scented 3 - 6" wide trumpet shaped flowers which open rapidly in the evening, and sometimes stay open till noon the next day. Fast growing twiner to 10 - 20 feet, with handsome heart-shaped leaves. Tropical America. In Panama, the leaves and calyces are eaten as a vegetable, as are the young seeds.

CALYCANTHUS (ka-lee-KAN-thus)
CALYCANTHACEAE. Easily grown aromatic shrubs from North America and east Asia. Valued for their fragrant summer and fall flowers. Best in well-drained somewhat rich soil in sun or shade. Sow in spring.
—Calycanthus chinensis. (25) CALY-1. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $10.00
'CHINESE SWEETSHRUB'. Nodding white to cream Camellia-like 2 1/2 - 3" wide flowers with pink-tinted yellow centers, sometimes with maroon markings, in spring and summer. Hardy deciduous shrub to 6 - 12 feet, with 6" glossy, dark green, oval leaves with a spicy aroma. E. China. Zone 5 - 9. Best in part shade in hot climates. Nick seed to germinate in 4 - 8 weeks or so. (=Sinocalycanthus chinensis)
—Calycanthus floridus. (25) CALY-4. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $7.50

'CAROLINA ALLSPICE'. Fragrant, many-petaled dark reddish brown 2" flowers. Deciduous shrub to 3 - 10 feet with 5" leaves. Virginia to Florida. The hardiest, to Zone 5. Much valued for the fragrant flowers. Bark was used as a cinnamon substitute. Nick seed to germinate in 3 - 6 weeks warm.

CAMASSIA (ka-MAS-ee-a)
LILIACEAE. North and South American hardy bulbs with blue and white flowers in graceful racemes, and grass-like leaves. Best in rich soil kept moist in spring. Needs cool temperatures to germinate, and may be slow otherwise.
—Camassia Leichtlinii. (25) CAMA-15. Packet: $2.50
5 grams: $10.00
'GREAT CAMAS'. Starry white six-petaled inch-wide flowers in tall spikes to 3 - 4 feet, May and June. Hardy bulb with strap-like 2 foot leaves. B.C. to N. California. Moist areas. Zone 3. Bulbs prized by Indians as food, raw or cooked. Germinates at cold temperatures, 5 - 14 weeks. Keep cool after germination.
—Camassia Quamash. (25) CAMA-20. Packet: $2.50
5 grams: $10.00
'CAMAS' 'QUAMASH'. Dark blue to white inch long flowers in spikes. Hardy bulb to 3 feet. Pacific Northwest. Zone 4. The bulbs were an important part of the diet of the Indians, and it was gathered in large quantities and eaten roasted or boiled. The cooking is said to develop the sweetness of the bulb. Germinates irregularly over 6 - 12 months.

CAMPANULA (kam-PAN-you-la or kam-pa-NU-la)
CAMPANULACEAE. 'BELLFLOWER', 'BLUEBELL', 'HAREBELL'. Many annual, biennial and perennial herbs prized for their showy, bell-shaped flowers. Adapted to the flower garden, rock garden and pot culture. The cascading species are especially good in hanging baskets. Flower garden kinds do best in deep moist loam, and rock garden kinds are best in sandy humus with a little lime. Part shade is beneficial in hot summer areas, and a light straw mulch in cold winter areas. Sow annuals early, in February to March, and plant out in May, biennials and perennials from June to September. Sow on the surface or barely cover as light is beneficial to some. Most germinate in 5 - 30 days, some up to 74 days. Cool temperatures (50 - 60°F) help some, and a few will hold over a year if sown in warm summer weather. Give flats mid-day shade and avoid overwatering. Liquid manure while flowering is helpful. They make long lasting cut flowers. Seed viable 4 - 10 years.
—Campanula cochlearifolia. (500) CAMP-24. Packet: $3.00
Little, nodding, 1/2" blue bells held on delicate stems over the grassy, low growing 2 - 8" plant. Hardy perennial. Leaves begin kidney-shaped, and become grass-like with maturity. Mountains of Europe. Zone 3. An excellent pot or rock garden plant, quickly forming a dense mat. My favorite. Germinates irregularly at cool temperatures.
—Campanula glomerata superba. (1000) CAMP-40S. Packet: $2.50
Click for photos » CampanulaGlomerataSuperba.jpg (55832 bytes) Campanula glomerata superba.jpg (132956 bytes)
Large clusters of rich, deep violet flowers in 3" across, globe-shaped clusters. Hardy perennial to 20". Hardy to Zone 2. Germinates in 1 - 4 weeks, needs light.
—Campanula latifolia macrantha. (500) CAMP-51M. Packet: $2.00
5 grams: $12.00
Click for photos » CampanulaLatifoliaMacrantha.jpg (92515 bytes) CampanulaLatifoliaMacranthaCloseup.jpg (86417 bytes) Campanula latifolia macrantha2.jpg (94116 bytes) Campanula latifolia macrantha3.jpg (96379 bytes)
GIANT BELLFLOWER'. Very large blue 2 1/2" flowers in 8" spikes of about 6 - 15 blooms. Large hardy perennial to 3 - 4 feet, covered with soft down. Eurasia. Zone 3. Nice ornamental. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks.
—Campanula Medium Single Mixed. (1000) CAMP-1X. Packet: $2.50
10 grams: $7.50 (about 3700 seeds per gram) BULK OUT OF STOCK - PACKETS ARE AVAILABLE
Click for photos » Campanula Medium Blue 1.jpg (54309 bytes) Campanula Medium Blue 2.jpg (59570 bytes)
'CANTERBURY BELLS'. Large single flowers in mixed shades of white, blue, rose, and lilac, in loose racemes on stems to 2 - 3 feet or more; excellent for late spring and summer bloom. Zone 5. Beautiful and easily grown garden plants, these sturdy flowers can be sown in late summer for bloom in spring, or started in March for bloom the same season. If the flowers are cut they may bloom again the following spring. The beautiful bell-shaped flowers are about 2" long and an inch wide. They last well when cut. Surface sow, needs light, germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Campanula persicifolia. (1000) CAMP-71. Packet: $2.50
'PEACHLEAF' or 'WILLOW BELLFLOWER'. Large blue 1 1/2 - 2" flowers. Hardy perennial to 3 feet, with narrow 4 - 8" leaves. Europe. Hardy to Zone 3. Very pretty. Once used as food in England. "One of the best of all perennial bellflowers."—L.H. Bailey. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks warm.
—Campanula persicifolia 'Telham Beauty'. (1000) CAMP-71T. Packet: $2.50
5 grams: $7.50
Fine china-blue variety. Due to chromosome doubling, this is larger and more vigorous.
NEW—Campanula persicifolia Wild Form. (1000) CAMP-71F. Packet: $2.50
'WILD WILLOW BELLFLOWER'. The true wild form, with more open flower clusters of blue bells. Hardy perennial to 3 feet. Europe. Zone 3.
—Campanula punctata. (100) CAMP-85. Packet: $2.50
Creamy to pink 2 - 3" long tubular bell-shaped flowers spotted crimson inside. Hardy perennial to 1 - 2 feet, with heart-shaped 3" leaves. Siberia and Japan. Zone 5. Germinates best in light, in 1 - 3 weeks.
NEW—Campanula punctata ssp. hondoensis. (1000) CAMP-85H. Packet: $2.50
Gram: $7.50
Click for photo » Campanula punctata ssp. hondoensis1.jpg (115168 bytes) Campanula punctata ssp. hondoensis2.jpg (122300 bytes)
Larger than the Siberian form, with purple to creamy 2 - 3" speckled pendulous bells produced abundantly in summer. Hardy perennial to 1 - 2 feet. Japan. Zone 4. The flowers are eaten raw in salads, and the leaves as a potherb. Germinates in a week. For more seeds and plants grown by plant-explorer Ben Kamm, including many Andean rarities, see his website at www.sacredsucculents.com
—Campanula punctata rubriflora. (100) CAMP-85R. Packet: $2.50
Large, narrow, cream to purple 2" bells with intense crimson spots. Choice! Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks.
—Campanula pyramidalis. (500) CAMP-87. Packet: $2.50
'CHIMNEY BELLFLOWER'. Pale blue, inch-long, saucer-shaped flowers in long, leafy panicles. Hardy perennial to 3 - 5 feet, usually grown as a biennial. Southern Europe. Can be flowered in a 10" pot. Can reach 9 feet tall in the greenhouse. Start early. Fine border plant. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks.
—Campanula pyramidalis alba. (1000) CAMP-87A. Packet: $2.50
'WHITE CHIMNEY BELLFLOWER'. This is the spectacular white-flowered form, with 4 foot tall leafy pyramidal clusters of inch-long flowers. "Stunning in arrangements. My favorite."—S. Calkins.

NEW—Campanula Rapunculus. (3000) CAMP-96. Packet: $2.50
Gram: $7.50
'RAPUNZEL', 'RAMPION'. Sky blue 3/4" bells in summer. Hardy biennial to 3 feet. Eurasia. Zone 4. The young roots are eaten raw or cooked, and the leaves and flowers are good in salads. This is the famous plant featured in the fairy tale 'Rapunzel', involving the theft of rapunzels from a witch's garden. There were formerly cultivated varieties with large roots, but these are extinct, and an interesting project would be reselection. Germinates in a week.
—Campanula rotundifolia. (500) CAMP-99. Packet: $2.50
'BLUE-BELLS-OF-SCOTLAND', 'HAREBELL'. Large, deep lavender, inch-long flowers on slender stalks. Dainty hardy perennial to 12", with round root-leaves in spring. Eurasia. Hardy to Zone 2. The true 'bluebell' of literature. Germinates in 1 - 4 weeks.

CANNA (KAN-na)
CANNACEAE. Showy tropicals valued for their brilliant flowers, stately habit and bold foliage. Easy in a deep, warm, rich, moist soil. Water and fertilize freely. Lift roots in fall after frost. Start early and plant out after all danger of frost. The hard seed are very long lived, having germinated when 600 years old, found in a pre-Columbian rattle. Nick and soak seed till swollen, and keep warm, to germinate in 1 - 8 weeks.
—Canna edulis. (=Canna indica Anchiras) (10) CANA-8.
Packet: $2.50
10 grams: $7.50, 25 grams: $14.00
Info on C. edulis
Photo
'ACHIRA', 'QUEENSLAND ARROWROOT'. Brilliant red narrow-petaled 2 1/2" flowers followed by fuzzy red seedpods. Large tropical perennial to 4 feet or more, with striking purple stems and large banana-like leaves. Tropical America. Zone 8. The large rhizomes are baked and eaten, and made into starch. The young shoots and immature seeds also eaten.

CAPPARIS (KAP-ar-is)
CAPPARIDACEAE. Beautiful warm region trees and shrubs with large, long-stemmed white flowers. Best in warm sunny spots and well drained, dry, rocky soil. Said to survive to Zone 4 or 5 if grown against a south-facing wall. Sometimes grown as an annual in the North if started early indoors. Good in the greenhouse. Germinates irregularly, most in 5 - 7 weeks, some up to a year. Lightly scratching the seed can help, as does GA-3 pretreatment and KNO3 pretreatment, and germinating at warm temperatures - 70 - 85°F.
—Capparis spinosa. (50) CAPP-22. Packet: $2.50
1/4 Oz: $9.00, Oz: $28.00
Purdue University Caper info page
Capers: A New Crop for California?
Article abstract on Caper germination
CaperInfo.com
'CAPER-BUSH' . Large beautiful white flowers with four round, crinkled petals, each 2" long, topped with a puff of up to 100 prominent long violet stamens "...the chief beauty of the plant."—L.H. Bailey. Trailing, half-hardy spiny shrub to 3 - 5 feet, with round leaves. Blooms June to September, followed by 1 1/2" oval fruits. Grown extensively in the Mediterranean for the unopened flower buds which are pickled forming the 'capers' of commerce. Known to the ancient Greeks. The young shoots have been eaten like asparagus. The Arabs eat the fruit, which is also pickled in the Punjab.

"Having obtained the difficult-to-obtain, free, and endowed human body, it would be a cause of regret to fritter life away."
—Tantric Precept.

CARAGANA (ka-ra-GA-na)
LEGUMINOSAE. Hardy ornamental shrubs from Central Asia, valued for their showy flowers. Very hardy and adapted to harsh conditions, sandy alkaline soil, etc. Good for wildlife habitat, erosion control, riparian restoration, windbreaks, etc. Soak seed overnight. Cold treatment helps some kinds.
—Caragana arborescens. (50) CARA-2. Packet: $2.00
Oz: $6.00, 1/4 lb: $18.00
'SIBERIAN PEATREE'. Showy bright yellow 3/4" long pea-like flowers in May and June. Very hardy small tree to 20 feet, with feathery foliage. Siberia and Manchuria. Zone 2. Good windbreak or hedge, good deer browse and fuelwood. Bark used for rope. Young green pods eaten as a vegetable in Siberia, ripe dry seeds eaten like beans and contain 36% protein, and they are good poultry feed. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks.
—Caragana jubata. (100) CARA-24. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $7.50
'SHAG-SPINE PEA-SHRUB'. Inch-long white or rosy flowers. Very hardy shrub to 3 - 8 feet, with densely woolly branchlets. Central Asia. "A very distinct and curious-looking species."—Rehder. Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks.
—Caragana microphylla. (25) CARA-28. Packet: $2.00
Oz: $6.00
Covered with 1" yellow flowers in clusters in spring. Very hardy shrub to 8 feet or so, with beautiful grey-green foliage of tiny leaflets. Siberia. Zone 3. "It is the only one that seems to resist spider mites out here in the Midwest."—Bertrand. Soak, nick hard ones, to germinate in 1 - 2 weeks warm.

CARDAMINE (kar-DA-mee-nay)
CRUCIFERAE. Annuals, biennials, and perennials with white to purple flowers. Most are dainty little plants and are easily grown. Excellent for moist shady places and heavy soil where other plants will not grow. Germination variable.
—Cardamine pratensis. (100) CARDA-64. Packet: $2.50
'CUCKOO FLOWER', 'LADY'S SMOCK', 'SPINKS'. Delicate white to pink or lilac 1/2" flowers in clusters in early spring. Hardy perennial to 12 - 20", with pinnate, cress-like leaves. North Hemisphere. Zone 3. The leaves and flowers make a piquant cress, good in salads or on sandwiches.

CARDIOCRINUM: See Reserved Access page.

CARLINA (kar-LEE-na)
COMPOSITAE. Stunning thistle tribe plants valued in the border or rock garden and for dried flowers. Best in not too rich soil. Sow on the surface; seed needs light, germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Carlina acaulis ssp. simplex. (50) CARL-2S. Packet: $3.00
Huge white to reddish thistle-like head to 5" across on short stems to 12", August to September, borne singly in the center of a rosette of spiny glossy leaves. Very dwarf hardy perennial. Europe. Zone 3. Common in the Alps, the flower heads are striking and much valued in dried arrangements. Once eaten like artichokes. Some forms stemless. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.

CARNEGIA (KAR-ne-gee-a)
CACTACEAE. A single species. Sow on the surface as light helps. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks warm. Slow growth (1" per year) when young, give part shade.
—Carnegia gigantea. (50) CARN-1. Packet: $2.50
Click for photos » CarnegiaGigantea.jpg (114288 bytes) CarnegiaFlower.jpg (39934 bytes) CarnegiaInHabitat.jpg (44994 bytes)
'SAGUARO'. The well-known giant cactus of the Sonoran Desert. Zone 9. Massive columns to 20 - 60 feet and 2 feet thick. White 4" flowers followed by sweet, edible fruits, which are gathered in large quantities by Indians, who eat the pulp, rind, and grind the seeds for flour. It is said to combine the flavors of peach, strawberry and fig. They are made into conserves, syrup, or fermented into a beverage. Wood used for fences and construction of hogans.

CARTHAMUS (KAR-tham-us)
COMPOSITAE. Yellow, purple or white flowered annuals grown in the border or wild garden. They make nice clumps and are good in heavy soil and full sun. Drought resistant. Easy from seed sown in early spring where they are to flower. Cover 1/4", germinates in 3 - 18 days depending on temperature. Thin to 6" apart. Flowers in about 12 weeks.
—Carthamus tinctorius. (50) CART-3. Packet: $1.50
1/4 lb: $5.00, lb: $16.00
'SAFFLOWER', 'FALSE SAFFRON'. Bright orange-yellow flowers with leafy bracts, on a thistle-like annual to 1 - 4 feet. Asia. Makes durable cut flowers, either fresh or dried. Ornamental and useful, it is widely grown for the seed oil used in cooking. The dried flowers are used like true saffron to color food, dye cloth, especially silks, and are powdered as a rouge-like cosmetic. It produces shades of pink, scarlet, purple, violet, etc. Needs cool temperatures (50 - 65°F) to germinate in 1 - 2 weeks. Warmth fatal.

CARUM (KAR-um)
UMBELLIFERAE. Aromatic annuals and perennials with thick roots, grown for food and flavoring. Umbels of small white or pinkish flowers and pinnate leaves. Seed viable 3 - 5 years.
—Carum Carvi. (500) CARU-3. Packet: $2.00 OTC ORGANIC
Oz: $6.00, 1/4 lb: $10.00
'CARAWAY'. Tiny white flowers in umbels held above the feathery, finely divided leaves. Hardy slender biennial to 1 1/2 - 2 feet. Eurasia. Grown since ancient times for its brown aromatic seed which are used to flavor breads, cheeses, baked fruit, liqueurs, and medicinally. The yellow roots are edible boiled like parsnips, and were mixed with milk to make a bread eaten by the Roman soldiers. The young, fresh, aromatic leaves are good in salads and mature leaves are boiled with vegetables. The seeds have been found in prehistoric Swiss lake dwellings, and are mentioned by writers from Dioscorides to the present. Sow in fall or in early spring in full sun where they are to grow, as they do not transplant well. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks or so. Thin to 8 - 12" apart. Will ripen seed the second season. Harvest when ripe and dry in the sun. They are an aid to digestion, and were an ingredient in love potions.

CASIMIROA (kas-i-mir-O-a)
RUTACEAE. Central American trees grown for edible fruit.
—Casimiroa edulis. (5) CASI-12. Packet: $4.00 OUT OF STOCK
Seed stored moist and refrigerated.
'WHITE SAPOTE', 'ZAPOTE BLANCO', 'CHOCHIZAPOTL' (Nahuatl name meaning 'sleepy sapote'). Yellow-green 3 - 4" fruits with soft, creamy, sweet custard-like pulp with a banana-peach flavor. Tree to 50 feet, but pinch the terminal bud to form an umbrella-crowned tree. Glossy green 3 - 5" leaves, divided fanwise into 3 - 7 leaflets, and fragrant green-white flowers. Mexican highlands, stands some frost (stands more cold than avocados). Zone 9. Mature trees can produce several hundred pounds of fruit annually. Overindulgence in the fruit is said to induce sleep in about 2 hours, and said to ease rheumatism. Bark, leaves, and seeds said to be used to induce sleep, and the seeds as an aphrodisiac, undried seeds said to be poisonous. Start seeds in pots, plant out when 3 feet tall. For best germination, peel off seed coat, soak overnight. Germinates in 1 - 2 months and up to 6 months.
Info and photos link: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/62618/
General info: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_sapote
Research on aphrodisiac properties: http://www.aphrodisiacsnatural.com/casimiroaedulis.html
Use for sleep: http://www.erowid.org/experiences/exp.php?ID=55376

CASSIA (KASS-ee-a)
LEGUMINOSAE. Showy herbs, shrubs and trees with pinnate leaves and large clusters of regular (not pea-like) flowers. A large genus from the tropics and temperate zones, with many highly ornamental species grown for their showy bloom and finely cut foliage. Prefers full sun, sandy loam and warm areas. The herbaceous species are hardy in the North, the woody kinds in warm areas or the greenhouse. Hard shelled seed - nick and soak to germinate in 1 - 12 weeks. Keep warm. The seed is very long lived; 158 years has been recorded.
—Cassia alata. (25) CASS-10. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $7.50, 1/4 lb: $20.00
'CANDLE-BUSH', 'KING OF THE FOREST'. Brilliant yellow 1 1/2" wide 5-petaled fragrant flowers in 4 - 12" spikes. Huge dark green, glossy, pinnate leaves up to 3 feet long. Interesting winged pods. Shrub to 3 - 15 feet. Tropics. Cut back after flowering. Fast growing and short-lived. The leaves are used throughout the Tropics for skin ailments, due to their chrysophanic acid content. The bark is used for tattooing in Africa. Zone 6. Soak, nick hard ones, to germinate in 1 - 4 weeks or so.
—Cassia marilandica. (50) CASS-210. Packet: $2.50
1/4 Oz: $7.50, Oz: $15.00
'WILD SENNA'. Bright yellow, wide-open flowers in dense clusters covering the plant in July to September. Hardy perennial to 3 - 5 feet, with attractive light green pinnate foliage. New England and southward. Zone 4. Likes wet soil. Sow in early spring with heat. Protect with a straw mulch in severe climates. A fine native perennial. Used medicinally by the Indians and settlers, especially the Shakers.
—Cassia Sturtii. (50) CASS-420. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $8.00
'DENSE CASSIA'. Beautiful yellow flowers on an upright bushy shrub to 3 - 6 feet, South Australia. One of the most promising forage shrubs for desert areas, it is being widely planted in the Negev and elsewhere. Highly palatable to stock, the leaves contain 12% protein, and gives yields of 1000 kilos of dry matter per hectare per year in 8" annual rainfall. Nick seed to germinate in 1 - 3 weeks.

CASTELLANOSIA (ka-stay-YA-nos-ee-a)
CACTACEAE. A single species.
—Castellanosia caineana. (=Browningia caineana) (25) CASL-4. Packet: $2.50
Felty purple 2" flowers covered with scales. Columnar branched cactus to 20 feet, with 9-ribbed stems with long spines. Eastern Bolivia. Germinates in 4 - 6 weeks.

CASTILLEJA (kas-ti-YAY-ha)
SCROPHULARIACEAE. 'INDIAN PAINTBRUSH'. Showy herbaceous plants with brightly colored bracts. Hemi-parasitic on the roots of other plants. Rub seed in the palm to remove covering and sow shallowly. Some need 1 - 3 months cold treatment. Use sterile potting mix and give air circulation. Festuca ovina v. glauca makes an attractive host-plant. Each pot should have this or a weed for a host.
—Castilleja sulphurea. (300) CAST-76. Packet: $2.50
'SULFUR PAINTBRUSH'. Showy yellow heads with white or purple inch-long flowers in summer. Hardy perennial to 4 - 12". Rockies. Zone 3. Give seed 4 - 8 weeks prechill.

CATANANCHE (kat-a-NAN-she)
COMPOSITAE. Pretty annuals and perennials with blue or yellow long-stalked flowers which are good for cutting, and can be dried for everlastings. Good in any ordinary soil.
—Catananche caerulea. (50) CATA-12. Packet: $2.50
'BLUE CUPID'S DART'. Showy lavender-blue flowers to 2" across from June to August. Hardy perennial to 2 feet, with downy narrow leaves. South Europe. Zone 4. The common name refers to the ancient use of the plant in love-philters. Start in early spring for bloom the first year. Space 1 foot apart. Germinates in 1 - 4 weeks.


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