L. HUDSON, SEEDSMAN,
BOX 337, LA
2022 SEEDLIST - Sa - Sh
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PALMAE. Small fan palms. Easily grown in moist or dry areas or in tubs in the greenhouse. The hardy species often like a one month pre-chill to speed germination to 60 - 90 days. Nicking may help. Hold pots two to four years or so.
—Sabal minor. (25) SABA-16. Packet: $2.50
'DWARF PALMETTO'. Small fan palm to 9 feet with blue-green, 4 foot wide leaves. Small white flowers and black fruits. SE U.S. One of the hardiest of all palms, standing to minus 10°F, Zone 5. If fans winter-kill, new growth may still sprout in spring. In cold climates, grow in tubs the first few years, then plant out in a sheltered spot, such as by a south-facing wall. GA-3 at 100ppm helps, germinates in 1 - 4 months or more. A 4 week prechill may help. Aged seed (1 - 2 years) is best.
CARYOPHYLLACEAE. 'PEARLWORT'. Tiny, moss-like tufted annuals and perennials grown for edging, ground cover, for filling in rockery, etc. They do well in sun or part shade and sandy, well-drained soil. Can be mowed. Sow in early spring to sprout in 2 - 3 weeks at cool to warm temperatures.
—Sagina subulata. (500) SAGI-9. Packet: $3.00
1/4 gram: $17.00, Gram: $48.00
'CORSICAN PEARLWORT'. Dense, mossy, bright verdant green foliage topped by tiny white flowers in summer. Mat-forming evergreen hardy perennial for rockery, ground cover etc., spreading over the ground like a 2" thick carpet of moss. Europe. Zone 4. Space 3" apart. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
"Language is the mother of lies."—J.L.H.
SOLANACEAE. Odd flowers from the Chilean Andes, valued for their richly-colored, attractively-veined bloom. Easily grown as half-hardy annuals in deep, rich soil; poor soil stunts bloom. Good in pots and for winter bloom in the greenhouse. Seed germinates readily in 1 - 3 weeks. Some species are dormant.
Salpiglossis sinuata Varieties: 'Paisley Flower'.
—Salpiglossis grandiflora 'Finest Mix'. (500) SALP-1FX. Packet: $2.50
5 grams: $6.00, 25 grams: $15.00
Large 2 1/2" funnel-shaped flowers in rich shades of golden yellow, cream, violet, red and bluish, with gold throats, and veined with purple, June to September. Half-hardy annual to 3 feet. Makes nice cut flowers which last well in water.
NEW—Salpiglossis sinuata 'Chilean Black'. (500) SALP-1C. Packet: $2.50
Deep, dark, purple-black flowers. Annual to 2 - 3 feet. Chile. Choice! Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
LABIATAE. 'SAGE'. A worldwide genus of 900 species of herbs and shrubs. Many highly attractive ornamentals, culinary herbs and medicinals, the name from the Latin 'Salveo', meaning 'I heal'. Most are easy from seed, germinating in 1 - 3 weeks. A few may need cold treatment. They vary from moisture and shade lovers to hot, dry, rocky slopes. Excess nitrogen may delay flowering. Tender species make nice greenhouse plants. GA-3 or smoke helps some.
—Salvia argentea. (25) SALV-4. Packet: $2.50
'SILVER SAGE'. Large striking rosettes of silvery white woolly leaves. The second or third season brings a large, branched, candelabra-like cluster of bluish-white flowers, to 2 feet tall. Mediterranean. Zone 5. "A very handsome border plant, one of my favorite Salvias."—S. Calkins. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
NEW—Salvia austriaca. (50) SALV-6. Packet: $2.50
'PANNONIAN SAGE'. White to pale yellow 1/2" flowers in summer. Perennial to 2 - 3 feet. E. Europe. Zone 4 or 6.
—Salvia bulleyana. (15) SALV-9. Packet: $3.00
Yellow inch-long flowers with red-brown tips in spikes in summer. Half-hardy perennial to 2 feet, with crinkled bright green foliage. China. Zone 6. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks warm.
—Salvia coccinea. (500) SALV-20. Packet: $2.50
Ounce: $7.50, 1/4 Pound: $22.50
'SCARLET SAGE'. Deep scarlet inch-long flowers with purple calyces, in spikes. Half hardy perennial to 2 feet, with deep green leaves. SE U.S. Zone 8. Good for naturalizing in open woodlands. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
—Salvia glutinosa. (25) SALV-28. Packet: $3.00
'JUPITER'S DISTAFF'. Pale yellow 1 1/2" flowers from July to September. Hardy perennial to 3 feet, with 8" leaves. Eurasia. Zone 5. Has been used for flavoring. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks with light; sometimes very dormant, try cold or GA-3.
—Salvia hians. (=himalayica) (25) SALV-31. Packet: $3.00
'KASHMIR SAGE'. Bright blue 1 1/2" inflated flowers in whorls, from June to August. Robust hardy perennial to 2 feet. Endemic to Kashmir. Zone 5.
—Salvia lavandulifolia. (10) SALV-44. Packet: $3.00
'SPANISH SAGE', 'LAVENDER SAGE'. Blue-violet inch-long flowers in spikes in summer. Hardy perennial to 16", with narrow, grey-green, aromatic 2" leaves. SW Europe. Zone 4. Used as flavoring, and has been likened to rosemary. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
—Salvia lyrata 'Purple Knockout'. (25) SALV-48P. Packet: $2.50
Beautiful dark purple variegated foliage and purple 3/4" flowers on purple-black stems. Has wintered over in Zone 5. Nice. Germinates in 2 - 6 weeks.
—Salvia miltiorrhiza. (75) SALV-51. Packet: $2.50
'DAN SHEN', 'CHINESE SAGE'. Blue-purple flowers in large spikes, June to September. Hardy perennial with wrinkled leaves. N. China. Zone 6. The root is an important traditional Chinese medicine, acting on the blood and heart. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
NEW—Salvia nemorosa Pink. (200) SALV-56P. Packet: $2.50
Click for photo »
Pink 1/2" flowers in long branching spikes in summer and fall. Perennial to 3 feet. Eurasia. Zone 5.
—Salvia nubicola CC6306. (25) SALV-58. Packet: $3.00
Spikes of yellow 1" flowers with purple spots. Perennial to 2 - 3 feet, with rosettes of aromatic leaves. Central Asia. Zone 7. From Chadwell's collection at 9500 feet in Himachel Pradesh, India. Medicinal. Germinates in 2 - 5 weeks. For more seeds and plants grown by plant-explorer Ben Kamm, including many Andean rarities, see his website at www.sacredsucculents.com
—Salvia nutans. (25) SALV-59. Packet: $3.50
'NODDING SAGE'. Beautiful, gracefully nodding spikes of bright violet-blue flowers in summer. Hardy perennial to 3 feet. Eurasia. Zone 5. Germinates in a week.
—Salvia officinalis. (100) SALV-60. Packet: $2.50
'GARDEN SAGE'. Blue 1 1/4" flowers in spikes in spring. Hardy shrublet to 2 feet, with grey leaves and white woolly stems. Mediterranean. Zone 5. Much used in the kitchen, a favorite ingredient in stuffings, sausage and cheese, and it makes a popular tea. An old medicine—"Cur moriatur homo cui Salvia crescit in horto?" (Why should a man die while sage grows in his garden?). Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
—Salvia officinalis 'Extracta'. (25) SALV-60E. Packet: $2.50 EU ORGANIC
10 grams: $15.00
'EXTRACT SAGE'. Developed for high oil content of the foliage for extraction. To 2 feet, lilac flowers, grey leaves. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
—Salvia pachyphylla. (10) SALV-62. Packet: $2.50
'ROSE SAGE'. Dense 4" spikes of 3/4 violet-blue flowers with prominent purplish bracts, July to September. Compact semi-evergreen shrublet to 1 - 2 feet, with aromatic grey leaves. California deserts. Zone 8, maybe 5. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
—Salvia roemeriana 'Hot Trumpets'. (10) SALV-74H. Packet: $3.00
'CEDAR SAGE'. Bright scarlet inch-long flowers in 8" spikes in June to September. Rounded perennial to 1 foot. S.W. U.S. Zone 7. Royal Horticultural Society Award of Garden Merit.
—Salvia Sclarea. (100) SALV-77. Packet: $2.50
10 grams: $7.50
'CLARY SAGE'. Inch-long pale blue flowers in densely branched spikes with colored bracts. Hardy biennial or perennial to 3 feet, with large, handsome rosettes of woolly leaves. S. Europe. Zone 4. Used in cookery and to flavor wines and beers. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
NEW—Salvia Sclarea v. turkestanica 'Vatican Pink'. (50) SALV-77VP. Packet: $2.50
Large white flowers with white and pink bracts, in large branching spikes. Perennial to 2 1/2 feet. Zone 4.
—Salvia spathacea. (25) SALV-84. Packet: $4.00
5 grams: $25.00
Click for photo »
'HUMMINGBIRD SAGE', 'PITCHER SAGE'. Large 1 1/2" purple-red flowers in dense, stacked whorls with purplish bracts, in large, 1 - 2 foot long spikes. Perennial from creeping rhizomes, with scented, fuzzy, arrowhead-shaped leaves. Moist places and chaparral, central California. Zone 8. Strikingly beautiful and tolerates poor conditions. Germinates in 1 - 4 weeks.
—Salvia transsylvanica. (25) SALV-98. Packet: $2.50
'TRANSYVANIAN SAGE'. Deep indigo-blue flowers in dense spikes. Hardy perennial to 1 1/2 feet tall and 3 feet wide. Transylvania. Zone 3. "Makes S. grandiflora look sloppy and boring by comparison."—Bertrand. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks warm.
—Salvia valentina. (10) SALV-100. Packet: $3.50
'GALLO CRESTA'. Endangered Spanish endemic. Tiny plants with 4" rosettes of wrinkled aromatic leaves and 6 - 8" flower stalks with pale blue-purple flowers. Zone 8. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks. For more seeds and plants grown by plant-explorer Ben Kamm, including many Andean rarities, see his website at www.sacredsucculents.com
CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Handsome ornamental trees, shrubs and perennials grown for their stately pinnate foliage, showy white flowers, and attractive red or black berries. The berries of some species are edible, and many have valuable medicinal properties, and are good wildlife food. Most are hardy and like a moist soil. Seed sown in fall to January germinates readily, though warm then cold helps.
—Sambucus caerulea. (250) SAMS-12. Packet: $2.50
'BLUE ELDERBERRY'. Creamy-white flowers in dense 6" clusters in early summer, followed by edible blue-black berries. Shrub or tree to 50 feet, with divided leaves. Western US. Zone 5. The fruit is made into jellies, juices, wine, pies, and the flowers are eaten in fritters and for tea. Valuable medicinal against many ailments, elderberry syrup being an excellent remedy for flu. Sow in late summer to fall, or prechill plus GA-3. (=S. mexicana and nigra ssp. cerulea)
—Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa. (250) SAMS-21R. Packet: $2.50
'PACIFIC RED ELDERBERRY'. Clustered white flowers in spring, followed by shiny red edible berries. Shrub to 12 feet, with pinnate leaves. Pacific states. Zone 3. Cooked berries eaten. Medicinal. Sow in late summer to fall, or prechill plus GA-3.
ROSACEAE. 'BURNET'. Mostly perennial herbs, grown for salads. Name means 'to staunch blood', as the roots are astringent. Easy from seed, space 8".
—Sanguisorba minor. (100) SANO-6. Packet: $2.50
Oz: $6.00, 1/4 Pound: $18.00
'BURNET', 'PIMPINELLE'. Beautiful clustered purple flowers. Perennial to 2 feet, with pinnate leaves. Zone 3. The fresh young leaves are used in salads, imparting a cucumber-like flavor. Also makes nice iced tea. A good border plant in any garden soil. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks at warm temperatures.
—Sanguisorba officinalis. (50) SANO-18. Packet: $2.50
'GREAT BURNET'. Dark purple flowers in 1" spikes. Pinnate leaves. An elegant perennial to 5 feet. Eurasia. Zone 4. Sow in March, thin to 9" apart. The leaves are eaten in salads. Medicinal. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks, and 4 weeks cold or GA-3 helps.
CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Easily grown Eurasian annuals and perennials, with blue green leaves and attractive five-petaled flowers. Stands poor soil and needs little care. Good in the rock garden, and they make nice cut flowers.
—Saponaria officinalis. (100) SAPO-9. Packet: $2.50
10 grams: $15.00
'BOUNCING BET', 'SOAPWORT'. Large pink inch-wide flowers in dense clusters, July to September. Stout hardy perennial to 1 - 2 feet, with 4" leaves. Eurasia. Zone 4. The root was used medicinally, and an extract is used in making halvah. Give 2 weeks warm, then 8 weeks cold, to germinate in 1 - 2 weeks. GA-3 may also trigger germination.
UMBELLIFERAE. Two central Asian species.
—Saposhnikovia divaricata. (25) SAPS-4. Packet: $2.50
'FANG FENG'. White flowers in umbels in July and August. Hardy perennial to 3 feet, with divided leaves. Siberia, N. China. Zone 5. Young leaves eaten raw and in soups. The root is highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine. Germinates in 2 - 4 weeks, and a prechill may help.
SARRACENIACEAE. Insectivorous perennials of moist areas of E. N. America. The pitcher-shaped leaves attract and trap insects which provide the plant with nitrogen and phosphorus. They are self-sterile so grow several to produce seed. They are CITES Appendix I and II endangered species; seed grown plants and amateur seed production helps their preservation. S. purpurea is naturalized in Ireland and Switzerland, highlighting the importance of man's introduction of species into new areas.
Germination often best with 8 weeks pre-chill plus GA-3 plus light. Grow on in pots of sandy muck standing in an inch of water.
—Sarracenia 'New Hybrids'. (25) SARR-NH. Packet: $5.00
'PITCHER PLANT'. Pitchers in various shapes and markings in purple-red, some veined, some blushed, with differing hoods. Large yellow to brown flowers. Hardy perennial to 8 - 16", some standing to Zone 3. Hybrids of alata, flava, leucophylla, purpurea, and their hybrids. For best germination, try 6 weeks prechill, then GA-3 and light.
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. A single species.
—Saruma henryi. (20) SARU-4. Packet: $2.50
Click for photo »
Bright yellow flowers on a hardy perennial to 16", with fuzzy heart-shaped leaves. China. Long bloom period. Zone 4. Endangered in the wild. Needs warm/cold/warm cycles. Hold pots several years.
LABIATAE. 'SAVORY'. Hardy aromatic annual and perennial herbs grown for ornament and as condiments. Light rich soil and full sun. Sow in spring to germinate in 1 - 2 weeks. Easy and attractive.
—Satureja Calamintha: See Calamintha nepeta.
—Satureja chinense var. parviflorum. (100) SATU-7P. Packet: $2.50
'FENG LUN CAI', 'KURUMABANA'. Whorled pale purple-red flowers with of ten purple-tinged calyces. Perennial to 3 feet, with dark green serrated leaves. E. Asia. Zone 7. Used against diabetes in Chinese medicine. Give seed 4 weeks prechill or GA-3 to germinate in 1 - 8 weeks. (=Clinopodium chinense var. parviflorum) For more seeds and plants grown by plant-explorer Ben Kamm, including many Andean rarities, see his website at www.sacredsucculents.com
—Satureja hortensis. (1000) SATU-15. Packet: $2.00 OUT OF STOCK
Ounce: $6.00, 1/4 Pound: $15.00 BULK OUT OF STOCK
'SUMMER SAVORY'. White to lavender 1/3" flowers in summer. Hardy aromatic annual to 9 -18". Mediterranean. A popular herb, much used in stews, with beans and peas, sausages, meats and poultry.
—Satureja spicigera. (100) SATU-38. Packet: $2.50
'CREEPING SAVORY'. Abundant white flowers in spikes on an aromatic semi-evergreen perennial to 8". Turkey to Iran. Zone 6. Good ground cover, blooming in late summer and fall. Irregular germination, 1 - 24 weeks, and GA-3 helps.
—Satureja spinosa. (50) SATU-40. Packet: $3.00
Click for photo » (these were taken well after peak bloom)
'CRETAN MOUNTAIN SAVORY'. Tiny white-pink flowers cover the plant in late summer, attracting bees. Dwarf, cushion-forming alpine shrublet to 4 - 6" tall and 10" wide, with narrow leaves. Endemic to the mountains of the southern Aegean. Zone 5. Good in rock gardens. Aromatic leaves used in cooking. Give GA-3 to germinate in 1 - 2 weeks. For more seeds and plants grown by plant-explorer Ben Kamm, including many Andean rarities, see his website at www.sacredsucculents.com
SAXIFRAGACEAE. A large group of North Hemisphere plants, many valued in the rock garden. Prized for their flowers and rosettes, there are species for sun or shade, easy ones, and difficult ones. Most do well in a gritty, evenly moist well-drained soil. Some types are dormant and need GA-3 at 1000 ppm, and expect seedlings to sprout sporadically for up to 2 years. Seed viable 4 years.
—Saxifraga x arendsii 'Purpurteppich'. (500) SAXI-10P. Packet: $2.50
'PURPLE ROBE'. Purple-carmine flowers in sprays to 6" tall, over a dense cushion of foliage. May. Zone 8. Variable color. Germinates in 2 - 4 weeks.
AIZOACEAE. South African succulents.
—Sceletium subvelutinum. (20) SCEL-21. Packet: $4.00
Large yellow to pale orange 1 1/3" flowers on a trailing succulent shrublet with flattened grey-green leaves, and forming a thick tuberous caudex. South Africa. Zone 9. Germinates in 1 - 3 weeks.
SCHISANDRA: See Reserved Access page.
SOLANACEAE. 'BUTTERFLY FLOWER'. Showy Chilean annuals and biennials valued for their brilliant flowers and attractive lacy foliage. Full sun or part shade in hot summer areas. Easily grown in ordinary well-drained garden soil. They bloom profusely if pot-bound. Barely cover seed to germinate in 1 - 3 weeks at 60 - 75°F. May be sown in fall and held over winter indoors for bloom in spring, or sown direct to the garden in May. Blooms in about 12 weeks. Seed half-life over 10 years.
—Schizanthus 'Angel's Wings'. (100) SCHZ-AW. Packet: $2.50
25 grams: $9.00
A fine compact strain of French origin, with large flowers in many shades. To 18" tall.
SOLANACEAE. Eurasian perennials with bell-shaped flowers and thick, creeping roots, related to belladonna. Best in shade.
—Scopolia carniolica. (10) SCOP-6. Packet: $3.00
Purple bell-shaped nodding inch-long flowers in April and May, followed by nodding capsules. Hardy creeping perennial to 1 - 2 feet, with 3 - 8" leaves. Damp stony soil, central Europe. Zone 4. Medicinal and poisonous, similar to belladonna, and the original source of scopolamine. Give seed 8 weeks cold to germinate in 2 - 4 weeks.
SCROPHULARIACEAE. Perennial herbs with purple to yellow flowers. Grown for their flowers, foliage, for bee forage and medicinal purposes. Excellent for naturalizing in moist areas.
—Scrophularia nodosa. (1000) SCRO-17. Packet: $2.50
Gram: $7.50, 5 grams: $15.00
'WOODS FIGWORT', 'ROSE NOBLE'. Purplish flowers in July, and heart shaped, toothed leaves. Hardy perennial to 9 feet, preferring moist places. Europe, W. Asia. Was so highly esteemed medicinally that the Welsh called it Deilen Ddu (good leaf), and use it for many ailments. Zone 4. Germinates in 1 - 9 weeks warm.
NEW—Scrophularia umbrosa. (1000) SCRO-44. Packet: $2.50
'WATER FIGWORT', 'CROWDY KIT'. Reddish purple flowers in open sprays. Hardy perennial to 2 - 5 feet. Eurasia and N. America. Best in damp places or by the water's edge. Attracts bees. Medicinal. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
"Men should not petition for rights, but take them."—Thomas Paine.
LABIATAE. A large, world-wide genus of annuals and perennials grown for their attractive flowers or for food and medicine. Good in the border or rock garden. Most germinate readily.
NEW—Scutellaria baicalensis. (25) SCUT-8. Packet: $2.50
1/4 Oz: $7.50, Oz: $20.00
Info and photo
'BAIKAL SKULLCAP', 'HUANG QIN'. Blue-purple velvety inch-long flowers in one-sided spikes. Sprawling hardy perennial to 16". Siberia to Japan. Zone 4. The root is an important Chinese medicine, with a variety of effects, including antibiotic, diuretic, anti-fever, and lowering blood pressure. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks, and GA-3 raises percent.
—Scutellaria lateriflora. (500) SCUT-48. Packet: $2.50
5 grams: $15.00
25 grams: $40.00
100 grams: $120.00
'MAD-DOG SKULLCAP'. Small light blue flowers in one-sided racemes, July to September. Hardy perennial to 2 - 4 feet, with 3" leaves. North America. Zone 4. Best in moist soil. Valuable medicinal plant, formerly highly regarded against rabies, and called "One of the finest nervines ever discovered."—Grieve. Use GA-3 to germinate in 2 weeks.
—Scutellaria pontica. (100) SCUT-64. Packet: $2.50
Reddish purple 1" flowers in dense clusters from June to August. Hardy perennial to 6", with downy greyish foliage. Turkey. Zone 6. Germinates in 1 - 2 weeks.
CRASSULACEAE. 'STONECROP'. Over 600 species of succulent mostly hardy perennials, valued for their often large, showy clusters of starry flowers. Good in rock gardens and for ground cover. Prefers well-drained sandy soil. Easily grown. Sow February to May, to germinate in 2 - 6 weeks at cool to warm temperatures. A few kinds may need cold treatment. Seed viable 3 - 5 years.
—Sedum reflexum. (500) SEDM-254. Packet: $2.50
1/4 Gram: $7.50, Gram: $12.00
'ROCK STONECROP', 'GOLDMOSS'. Bright golden yellow to cream, 1/2" starry flowers in clusters on 6 - 9" stalks in summer. Hardy perennial forming 2 - 3" tall mossy mats of narrow blue-green 1/2" succulent leaves. Europe. Zone 4. The leaves are eaten in soups and salads. Germinates in 2 - 6 weeks warm.
RANUNCULACEAE. East Asian herbs resembling spurless columbines. Good in the rock garden.
—Semiaquilegia ecalcarata. (75) SEMI-8. Packet: $4.00
Click for photo »
Rich purple to wine-colored somewhat nodding 1/2 - 3/4" flowers on a hardy perennial to 18". China. "Subtle and exquisite."—Bertrand. Choice and rarely seen. Top notch plant. Germinates best with GA-3.
CRASSULACEAE. 'HOUSELEEK', 'HENS AND CHICKS'. Succulent hardy evergreen perennials with dense rosettes of fleshy leaves, forming offsets of tiny rosettes, the 'chicks'. Starry flowers in dense clusters, rose, red, purple, yellow or white. Popular for edging, rockwork, on walls, or as houseplants. Give full sun and well drained, poor sandy soil. Sow thinly on the surface to germinate in 1 - 6 weeks at cool to warm temperatures. Needs light.
—Sempervivum Mixed Species and Varieties. (500) SEMP-X. Packet: $3.00
1/4 Gram: $25.00, Gram: $70.00
Click for photo »
A fine blend of hardy species from Europe.
TAXODIACEAE. A single species. Seed germinates readily but benefits from 30 - 60 days cold treatment. Seed viable many years. Birds may be attracted to them and seedbeds may need to be screened.
—Sequoiadendron giganteum. (200) SEQO-1. Packet: $3.00 OUT OF STOCK - Seed shortage because of the wildfires. We do not know when we will obtain more.
'GIANT SEQUOIA'. Magnificent forest giant to over 300 feet tall, with a bole 10 - 30 feet in diameter, and bark 20" thick. Greyish green scale-like foliage and oval 2 - 3" cones. Rare, in only a few scattered groves in the Sierra Nevada. Stands down to minus 10°F. Zone 6. Grows 2 - 3 feet a year when young, and lives 1500 years. This species should be naturalized in suitable habitats worldwide to prevent extinction. Germinates in 2 - 8 weeks warm. Some lots need a prechill for best germination. Seed has a naturally low percentage of filled viable seeds - the best germination usually obtained is about 40%. This lot is excellent quality! Germination 40%, tested 1/20.